Two Recently Launched ICEYE SAR Satellites Commissioned and Added to the Company’s Commercial Constellation

ICEYE has revealed that two of the company’s SAR satellites that were launched in July of 2019 have finalized their initial commissioning and are now available for customer data orders.

The company now provides standardized commercial imaging access to three of its SAR satellite units, in addition to serving a number of customers with custom data products and solutions. ICEYE is set to launch two more SAR satellite units by the end of 2019 to further increase the commercial availability and coverage of the globe with the company’s constellation.

The initial commissioning phase for these two ICEYE SAR satellites has been finalized, and standard SAR data access is available for commercial and government customers. ICEYE has recently published radar imaging with its newly developed Spotlight mode — imagery at very high resolutions.

ICEYE is simultaneously publicizing images that have been acquired with both new SAR satellite units, taken only minutes apart from each other, to demonstrate change detection capabilities the company is developing. ICEYE intends to grow its SAR satellite constellation to cover the globe with very frequent imaging, with an average of only hours between imaging opportunities for individual locations.


Image is courtesy of ICEYE.

In the composite visualization to the right, vessels in the port of Gothenburg, Sweden, are detected changing their position with just minutes between two combined SAR satellite images. Elements shown in green represent the position of elements only seen in the prior image, and elements in red represent elements only in the following image. One of the vessels is leaving the port, and another is slowly approaching the oil terminal visible in the scene.


Artistic rendition of an ICEYE SAR satellite on-orbit.

Image is courtesy of the company.

Rafal Modrzewski, CEO and Co-founder of ICEYE, said in addition to serving customers with an increasing amount of capacity and access, the company continues to develop and deploy new capabilities for the firm’s current SAR satellites already on-orbit.

Pekka Laurila, Chief Strategy Officer and Co-founder of ICEYE, added the capacity of these two SAR satellites helps the firm increase the revisit rates for individual locations, which further ensures that customers don’t have to wait for imaging. With this dramatic increase in imaging capacity, ICEYE is able to also serve segments such as the insurance and energy industries with tailored information solutions that bring more direct value towards their needs.


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

China Launches Resource Satellite and Two Smallsats

China delivered a resource satellite and two small satellites into planned orbits from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in north China’s Shanxi Province on Thursday, September 12 — they were launched on a Long March-4B carrier rocket at 11:26 a.m., Beijing Time.


The Long March-4B carrier rocket of China’s ZY-1 02D satellite and two smallsats.

Photo is courtesy of chinaplus.cri.cn.

The resource satellite, ZY-1 02D, was developed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and is an important part of China’s space-based infrastructure. It will provide observation data for natural resources asset management, ecological monitoring, disaster prevention and control, environmental protection, urban construction, transportation and contingency management. With an expected lifespan of five years, ZY-1 02D will form a network, with more satellites to follow.

ZY-1 02D will work in the solar synchronous orbit at 778 km. above the Earth. It carries a near-infrared camera with a coverage width of 115 km., enabling it to observe large and medium-sized cities and to be used for urban planning, said the satellite’s project manager, Li Yifan. It also carries a 166-band hyperspectral camera that can produce 166 pictures with different color bands, simultaneously. The camera can capture the reflected light information of various minerals, and be used to analyze complicated mineral compositions and distribution, said Li. The satellite can also be used to observe chlorophyll concentration, water transparency and total suspended matter concentration in lakes to help monitor the environment and prevent water pollution.

One of the two smallsats launched on the same rocket belongs to Beijing Normal University and is named BNU-1 — the second smallsat belongs to a Shanghai-based private space technology company. Both have an expected lifespan of one year.

BNU-1, developed by a Shenzhen-based company affiliated to CAST, weighs about 16 kg. and will be mainly used to monitor polar climate and environment, greatly helping research of the polar regions and global climate change. The satellite can report sea ice changes, which could help with ship navigation and make channel risk assessments.

Thursday’s launch is the 310th mission of the Long March carrier rocket series.

Article source: Xinhua


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

Aevum Awarded $4.9 Million Contract from U.S.A.F. Rocket Systems Launch Program   

The U.S. Air Force’s Rocket Systems Launch Program (RSLP) office, part of the Space and Missile Systems Center Launch Enterprise, awarded a $4.9 million contract to Aevum, Inc. for the ASLON-45 space lift mission via RSLP’s Small Rocket Program-Orbital (SRP-O) framework. 

The ASLON-45 mission will provide orbital launch services in support of the DOD Space Test Program and other Government agencies; improving the DOD’s real time threat warnings.  


Photo from Defense Systems Journal.

SMC originally selected Vector Launch, Inc. for the award; however, Vector formally withdrew on August 26, 2019.  The RSLP used the Federal Acquisition Regulation Part 13.5 Simplified Acquisition Procedures to expedite another award  to deliver affordable innovative warfighter capabilities faster.  

Lt Col Ryan Rose, Small Launch and Targets Division Chief said that they re-awarded this mission in just 14 days, with no impact to launch or mission. Their team is working hard to make contract awards faster and this is an outstanding example of how they exemplify resiliency and flexibility in their contracting and acquisition practices.

This will be the first U.S. Air Force mission for Aevum, Inc. and will be launched from Cecil Air and Space Port in Jacksonville, Florida.  The initial launch capability of the ASLON-45 mission is scheduled for the third quarter of 2021.

Col. Robert Bongiovi, director of SMC’s Launch Enterprise commented that the Small Rocket Program-Orbital framework provides orbital launch services to academia, DOD, and other Government agencies for operations, research, development, and test missions and is a shining example of SMC’s drive to provide innovation and partnership across the Enterprise faster than ever before. These orbital missions, like ALSON-45, can be used to directly support the warfighter and demonstrate new weapon system technologies and concepts.

SMC, home to world-class satellite acquisition professionals, is the U.S. Air Force’s Center of Excellence for acquiring and developing military space systems.  SMC’s vast portfolio includes space launch, global positioning, military space vehicle communications, defense meteorological space vehicles, range systems, space vehicle control networks, space-based infrared systems, and space situational awareness capabilities.

 

BridgeComm to Deliver to Optical Comms System to Saturn Satellite Networks

BridgeComm, Inc. has signed a cooperative agreement with Saturn Satellite Networks Inc. (Saturn) — Saturn has introduced their “NationSat” satellites to address the needs of developing economies by employing advanced digital processing to increase flexibility, improve performance and reduce weight, thereby providing disruptive economics for customers.

Saturn is also developing other disruptive communications solutions to provide a much broader range of services to their customers. BridgeComm will support Saturn’s new communications architectures enabling secure, high-speed communications.

BridgeComm will work to provide Saturn with optical communications system design and systems engineering. BridgeComm will also support Saturn in key design parameters, as well as with ground communications services. Finally, Saturn and BridgeComm will jointly work to support both commercial and U.S. Government customer solutions.
 
BridgeComm CEO Barry A. Matsumori said that, as the first company to bring OWC (Optical Wireless Communications) to the commercial market, the firm is confident that this technology and overall communication systems support will enable Saturn to offer a unique solution, with the added features of being both high-speed and secure. Asa new era of 5G communications is entered, OWC will be integral in bridging the existing connectivity gap, particularly in challenging environments to augment the capabilities already realized using RF technology.”
 
Saturn CEO Jim Simpson added that Saturn Satellite Networks will provide services that are more closely associated with the terrestrial network nodes in terms of transparency and capabilities. In addition, the performance of the network will surpass that of any existing space system, hence several key partnerships have been established; among them with BridgeComm.


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

 
 

C-COM Integrates Flyaway Antenna System with NSLCom’s LEO Smallsat

C-COM Satellite Systems Inc. (TSXV: CMI) has successfully integrated their 74 cm Flyaway antenna system with NSLComm’s Low Earth Orbit (LEO) smallsat — NSLComm is an Israel-based, pioneering smallsat telecommunications company that launched the first Gigabit per second Ka-band satellite into orbit in July of this year.

This uniquely successful test completes a significant development project between the two companies and will open new markets and create new opportunities for both companies.


C-COM’s iNetVu® FLY-74.

C-COM’s engineering team developed the NSL ground station demonstrator terminals along with the required tracking software to NSLComm specifications, using the renowned iNetVu® 7700 series controllers. NSLComm provided access to their powerful Ka-band LEO nanosatellite and assisted with daily testing.

The iNetVu® FLY-74 is C-COM’s newly developed 74 cm, fully automatic, motorized Ka-band flyaway product. This family of antenna systems is highly portable and the choice for various industries such as Oil & Gas, Exploration, Emergency Response, Military Communications, Cellular Backhaul, Satellite News Gathering, and many other vertical markets.

Dr. Leslie Klein, President and CEO of C-COM Satellite Systems Inc., said that for C-COM, this test with NSLComm’s LEO nanosatellite opens up new developing markets for the firm’s extensive worldwide reseller base. The store and forward communication satellite services offered by NSLComm’s LEO satellites in conjunction with C-COM’s iNetVu® mobile antenna systems will provide the firms’ joint customers with a unique, cost-effective high-speed data transfer capability.

Dr. Raz Itzaki, CEO of NSLComm, added that for NSLComm, the addition of the C-COM FLY-74 as an approved satellite antenna solution opens up new opportunities to deliver gigabit per second speeds for mobile/transportable applications such as natural resource exploration and extraction, remote research stations, disaster management, defense, and many other vertical markets requiring high-capacity connectivity where cost, portability and reliability are key considerations.

Astrocast CEO Participating in IoT Constellations Panel @ World Satellite Business Week + Company Reaping Funding

On Wednesday, September 11, at World Satellite Business Week in Paris, Fabien Jordan, the CEO of Astrocast, will be participating in a panel discussion regarding IoT Constellations: Emerging Business Models, starting at 14:15 CEDT.

Astrocast also recently successfully closes CHF 9 million ($9.2 / €8.3 million) Series A round of funding from new and existing investors. The company has raised CHF 16.6M to date and will use the capital to accelerate production of IoT modules, to start the company’s commercial phase and deployment of their LEO IoT Network.


Artistic rendition of Astrocast’s IoT smallsat constellation.

Image is courtesy of the company.

Astrocast also announced the award of a CHF 500,000 loan from the Foundation for Technological Innovation. The FIT Growth loan encourages entrepreneurship, supports innovation and bolsters the local economy by supporting technology startups in the county of Vaud Switzerland. Astrocast received a similar award called the FIT Seed Loan in 2015.

According to the company, Astrocast is the only IoT company partnering with aerospace industry firms such as Thuraya, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Airbus. The launch of a second test satellite in April of this year made Astrocast the first to prove its ability to launch, propel, accurately determine the position and communicate with their LEO smallsats in less than two hours after launch.

The company is also the first to have commercial access to the L-band frequency enabling energy efficient and reliable two-way IoT communications, anywhere. Both satellites have completed a full system test and are functioning at full capacity. Astrocast is now engaging in commercial discussions with partners. Its first three pilot customers, Actia, Marine Instruments and Swiss Fresh Water have all begun on-the-ground testing.  

José Achache, Astrocast Chairman of the Board, said it has been an amazing year for Astrocast. With the launch of two satellites and a growing number of pilot customers, the company has demonstrated its ability to bring IoT access to the world.

Fabien Jordan, CEO of Astrocast, stated the company is excited to see the continued confidence of the firm’s investors and partners in the new space race and the company as the mission of building the world’s first IoT network for the planet becomes a reality. As Astrocast moves toward the commercial launch in Q1 of 2020, the firm is further confirming its leadership as a fully integrated nanosatellite operator with the unique ability to deliver efficient IoT satellite global coverage. Next steps with investors will be to secure an accelerated deployment of the firm’s global fleet of satellites.


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

Boeing in Paris Announces Unique Capability … 702X Satellites Offer Multi-Mission Flexibility


Boeing is unveiling its new 702X family of software-defined satellites. All 702X variants, such as this small geosynchronous orbit model, will provide satellite operators the flexibility to reallocate bandwidth through software updates in real-time to meet changes in market demand. (Boeing photo)

In Paris Boeing [NYSE: BA] unveiled its 702X family of software-defined satellites, highlighting a 1,900kg variant for geosynchronous orbit. The big news is that the 702X technology enables operators to adapt to changing market conditions by dynamically allocating bandwidth.

The 702X builds on Boeing’s existing success with the 702 series satellites. The 702X platform incorporates a mature design, with a medium Earth orbit version already in production. Advanced manufacturing processes dramatically reduce cost and schedule risk while allowing the 702X to be delivered to customers within three years.

The 702X satellites will allow operators to distribute capacity to a variety of end-users, connecting businesses, ships, airplanes, autonomous vehicles and broadband internet users around the world.

Eric Jensen, vice president of Global Sales and Marketing, Boeing Commercial Satellites stated that satellites are, and will continue to be, an integral part of the data-driven society. The 702X gives their customers the tools necessary to evolve with the market.

The 702X is available to customers today. Boeing estimates the first 702X geosynchronous variant will be operational as soon as 2022.

 


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium in Silicon Valley, California, is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

Forrester Reports: SpaceX Wishes to Modify Their Starlink Satellites Plans + Boeing’s Smallsat Strategy

In a posting by journalist Chris Forrester at the Advanced Television infosite, Elon Musk’s SpaceX, in an application filing to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), is asking if it can dramatically modify its previously approved orbital plans.

Musk wants the SpaceX’s fleet of ‘Starlink’ satellites to triple the number of orbital planes, each at 550 kms. high. In essence, the plan is for 72 orbital rings circling the Earth instead of the approved 24. This will have, says SpaceX, the effect of achieving greater launch efficiency and an improved spread beam coverage.

The company said, “The proposed respacing would require fewer launches of satellites —– perhaps as few as half — to initiate service to the entire contiguous US. Globally, the modification would enable more rapid coverage of all longitudes to grow toward the Equator, as well as bolstering capacity over in areas of greater population density.”


Journalist
Chris Forrester.

SpaceX in May orbited one batch of 60 satellites — not all of which are working. Five are being deorbited, and the company now says that it expects to make “several more” launches this year. SpaceX has plans for four more launch flights this year according to the FCC filing, with the first probably later in October.

If approved, SpaceX will have just 22 satellites in each ring instead of the 66 per orbital ring initially envisioned. The scheme is then to have the system up and working in time for next year’s hurricane season over the U.S.

The FCC has approved SpaceX’s plans for almost 12,000 satellites, with 1,600 of them operating from 550 kms. high.  The other plans approved include 7,500 satellites to orbit at between 335 to 346 kms. and another 2,800 at heights of between 1,100 and 1,325 kms.

Additionally, Forrester is reporting that aerospace giant Boeing used the opening of the Euroconsult World Satellite Business Week in Paris to outline the company’s plans for a new range of satellites.

The new versions are Boeing 702X, a direct follow-on from its well-established Boeing 702 variants which have flowed out of its El Segundo facility since 1997. Boeing 702X is based on a range of seven satellites on order for SES subsidiary O3b, an MEO fleet that’s being readied for 2021 launch.

While the SES/O3b fleet weigh just 1,100 kgs. each, the new geostationary version will weigh some 1,900 kgs. (net, unfueled) and could be ready for launch in three years. The SES O3b versions will be launched, probably as a triple payload, by SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets.

Boeing’s VP/Global commercial sales, Eric Jensen, talking to reporters, said that the new satellites embrace reprogrammable software-defined solid-state payloads. The savings in on-board processing and cabling is dramatic, and include 3D printing techniques.

Joint Development Plan for Smallsats Bring ArianeWorks and Newspace Factory Together

ArianeWorks and Newspace Factory have announced a joint work plan to stimulate space access solutions in France for smallsats.

The economic growth of the space sector today requires an easier access to space for smallsats and a more rapid access to strategic orbital positions. In this context, it becomes essential to have in house relevant solutions adapted to these new challenges. By combining the legacy of the launchers domain and the satellite domain, ArianeWorks and Newspace Factory together want to bring out global, agile and competitive solutions.

To achieve this, a first workshop will be organized by ArianeWorks and Newspace Factory in October 2019 at B612 in Toulouse. It aims to bring together SMEs, Startups or Engineering Schools around “uses cases” established for military, scientific and commercial applications.

The objective is to present the results of this work and the projects selected during the next Global Space event, to be held in June 2020 in Toulouse.

CNES will provide technical support for the solutions. The Aerospace Valley cluster will contribute by bringing its network and support to the search for funding.


For all involved in the satellite and space industry and the various market segments that add value to these dynamic environments, the 2020 SmallSat Symposium is truly worth your consideration for attendance.

The 2020 SmallSat Symposium starts on February 3, 2020, with workshops, then the Conference runs February 4 to 6 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.

The SmallSat Symposium is hosted by Satnews Publishers which, since 1983, has been a provider of a satellite news, media and events. This information packed forum was created to enable you and your company to secure a larger portion of market share as well as to take part in the next stages of your company’s or organization’s growth.

The personal connections at the SmallSat Symposium enable attendees to network with established organizations, subject-matter experts as well as ‘New Space’ entrants.

The SmallSat Symposium will focus on new technologies and the business environment that is shaping the implementation of smallsat constellations, smallsat launchers, the challenges facing the smallsat developer and actors as well as the enormous benefits of these advanced technologies that will benefit our world.

This event assembles more than 100 diverse speakers, all of whom possess deep industry experience. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist to mingle and network with peers while enjoying exceptional, complimentary meals and refreshment breakfast.

Learn more at this direct link…

Canada’s Own Is Honored … Dan Goldberg, Telesat’s President and CEO is Ottawa’s “2019 CEO of the Year”


Dan Goldberg
President and CEO

Dan Goldberg, Telesat’s President and CEO joined Telesat as CEO in 2006 and, during his tenure, the company has grown to be one of the largest, most successful satellite operators in the world with a global fleet of 17 satellites in orbit. In recognition of these and other achievements the Ottawa Business Journal and the Ottawa Board of Trade awarded Goldberg 2019 CEO of the Year. This is an honor bestowed upon an outstanding corporate leader in the greater Ottawa business community.

Besides being one of the most successful satellite operators in the world with a global fleet of 17 satellites in orbit, Dan working closely with his colleagues, transformed Telesat from a regional to a global satellite operator, and significantly grew its revenue, more than doubling its operating cash flow. This financial achievement dramatically improved its operating margins, created significant equity value for its shareholders, and is poised to deploy a revolutionary Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite constellation that positions the company for strong growth in the future.

Dan Goldberg, Telesat’s President and CEO stated that he is humbled and honored to be named Ottawa’s ‘2019 CEO of the Year’ and pleased to accept this award on behalf of Telesat’s hundreds of employees in Ottawa, across Canada and around the world. Telesat is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year and has been headquartered in Ottawa from day one. Ottawa is a tremendous place from which to be operating a global company, with a deep pool of talented and dedicated professionals, a world class business community, and a quality of life that is second to none. He thanked the Ottawa Business Journal and the Ottawa Board of Trade both for this award and for their important and significant contributions in making Ottawa such a vibrant business community. He added that he is fortunate and proud to call Ottawa home and excited about Telesat’s future in their nation’s capital.